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Nano-tech Research


Nanotechnology is helping to revolutionize many technology and industry sectors, including materials science, renewable energy, biomedical technology, 3D printing and robotics manufacturing. At its most basic, nanotech relies on tailoring the structure of materials at an atomic or molecular scale, to achieve specific properties. Using nanotechnology, new materials can be fabricated that are stronger, lighter, and better electrical conductors, among other properties.

When particle sizes of solid matter in the visible scale are compared to what can be seen in a regular optical microscope, there is little difference in the properties of the particles. But when particles are created with dimensions of about 1–100 nanometers, the materials’ properties change significantly from those at larger scales. This is the size scale where quantum effects rule behavior and physical properties. Thus, when particle size is made to be nanoscale, properties such as melting point, fluorescence, electrical conductivity, magnetic permeability, and chemical reactivity change as a function of the size of the particle.
• Nanoscale additives in polymer composite materials for baseball bats, tennis rackets, motorcycle helmets, automobile bumpers, luggage, and power tool housings can make them simultaneously lightweight, stiff, durable, and resilient.

• Nanoscale additives to or surface treatments of fabrics help them resist wrinkling, staining, and bacterial growth, and provide lightweight ballistic energy deflection in personal body armor.

• Nanoscale thin films on eyeglasses, computer and camera displays, windows, and other surfaces can make them water- repellent, antireflective, self-cleaning, resistant to ultraviolet or infrared light, antifog, antimicrobial, scratch-resistant, or electrically conductive.

• Nano-engineered materials in the food industry include nanocomposites in food containers to minimize carbon dioxide leakage out of carbonated beverages, or reduce oxygen inflow, moisture outflow, or the growth of bacteria in order to keep food fresher and safer, longer.

• Nanosensors built into plastic packaging can warn against spoiled food. Nanosensors are being developed to detect salmonella, pesticides, and other contaminates on food before packaging and distribution.

• Nano-engineered materials in automotive products include high-power rechargeable battery systems; thermoelectric materials for temperature control; lower-rolling-resistance tires; high-efficiency/low-cost sensors and electronics; thin-film smart solar panels; and fuel additives and improved catalytic converters for cleaner exhaust and extended range.

• Nano-engineered materials make superior household products such as degreasers and stain removers; environmental sensors, alert systems, air purifiers and filters; antibacterial cleansers; and specialized paints and sealing products.

• Nanostructured ceramic coatings exhibit much greater toughness than conventional wear-resistant coatings for machine parts. Such coatings can extend the lifetimes of moving parts in everything from power tools to industrial machinery.

Nanotechnology is already in use in many computing, communications, and other electronics applications to provide faster, smaller, and more portable systems that can manage and store larger and larger amounts of information. These continuously evolving applications include nanoscale transistors that are faster, more powerful, and increasingly energy-efficient. Magnetic random access memory (MRAM) enabled by nanometer-scale magnetic tunnel junctions can quickly and effectively save even encrypted data during a system shutdown or crash. Displays for many new TVs, laptop computers, cell phones, and digital cameras incorporate nanostructured polymer films known as organic light-emitting diodes (OLED displays). Other uses include Flash memory chips for iPod nanos, ultraresponsive hearing aids, and antibacterial coatings on computer keyboards.

Medical, and Health Applications

Over time, nature has perfected the art of biology at the nanoscale. Many of the inner workings of cells naturally occur at the nanoscale. For example, hemoglobin, the protein that carries oxygen through the body, is 5.5 nanometers in diameter. A strand of DNA, one of the building blocks of human life, is about 2 nanometers in diameter. Medical nanotechnology has the real potential to revolutionize a wide array of medical and biotechnology tools and procedures so that they are more personalized, portable, cheaper, safer, and easier to administer.

For example, quantum dots are semiconducting nanocrystals that can enhance biological imaging for medical diagnostics. When illuminated with ultraviolet light, they emit a wide spectrum of bright colors that can be used to locate and identify specific kinds of cells and biological activities. These crystals offer optical detection up to 1,000 times better than conventional dyes used in many biological tests, such as MRIs, and render significantly more information.
• Gold nanoparticles can be used to detect early-stage Alzheimer’s disease.

• Molecular imaging for the early detection where sensitive biosensors constructed of nanoscale components such as nanocantilevers, nanowires, and nanochannels can recognize genetic and molecular events.

• Multifunctional therapeutics where a nanoparticle serves as a platform to facilitate its specific targeting to cancer cells and delivery of a potent treatment, minimizing the risk to normal tissues.

• Research enablers such as microfluidic chip-based nanolabs capable of monitoring and manipulating individual cells and nanoscale probes to track the movements of cells and individual molecules as they move about in their environments.

• Nanotechnology may also spur the growth of nerve cells. In one method, a nanostuctured gel fills the space between existing cells and encourages new cells to grow. Another method is exploring use of nanofibers to regenerate damaged spinal nerves in mice.

• Nanostructured filters that can remove virus cells from water.

• Deionization method using nano-sized fiber electrodes to reduce the cost and energy requirements of removing salts from water.

Nanoparticles will someday be used to clean industrial water pollutants in ground water through chemical reactions that render them harmless, at much lower cost than methods that require pumping the water out of the ground for treatment. Many airplane cabin and other types of air filters are nanotechnology-based filters that allow mechanical filtration, in which the fiber material creates nanoscale pores that trap particles larger than the size of the pores. They also may contain charcoal layers that remove odors. Almost 80% of the cars sold in the U.S. include built-in nanotechnology-based filters.

Sustainable Energy

The difficulty of meeting the world’s energy demand is compounded by the growing need to protect our environment. Many scientists are looking into ways to develop clean, affordable, and renewable energy sources, along with means to reduce energy consumption and lessen toxicity burdens on the environment.
• Prototype solar panels incorporating nanotechnology are more efficient than standard designs in converting sunlight to electricity, promising inexpensive solar power in the future. Nanostructured solar cells are cheaper to manufacture and easier to install. Future solar energy converters might even be able to be painted on surfaces.

• Nanotechnology is improving the efficiency of fuel production from normal and low-grade raw petroleum materials through better catalysis, as well as fuel consumption efficiency in vehicles and power plants through higher- efficiency combustion and decreased friction.

• Nanotechnology is used in numerous new kinds of batteries that are less flammable, quicker-charging, more efficient, lighter weight, and that have a higher power density and hold electrical charge longer. One new lithium- ion battery type uses a common, nontoxic virus in production processes.

• Nanostructured materials are being pursued to greatly improve hydrogen membrane and storage materials and the catalysts needed to realize fuel cells for alternative transportation technologies at reduced cost. Researchers are also working to develop a safe, lightweight hydrogen fuel tank.

• An epoxy containing carbon nanotubes is being used to make windmill blades that are longer, stronger, and lighter- weight than other blades to increase the amount of electricity that windmills can generate.

• Researchers are developing wires containing carbon nanotubes to have much lower resistance than the high-tension wires currently used in the electric grid and thus reduce transmission power loss.

Mechanical Engineering
Cutting Forces
Mechanics of Machining
Velocity Analysis
Degrees of Freedom
Fatigue
Mohr's Cirlce
Von-Mises Stress
Vibration
design and manufacturing i
design and manufacturing ii
toy design
intro to robotics
optics
sail and yacht design
direct thermal solar


Aircraft Design, Aerospace
aerospace engineering 1
thermal energy
automatic control
aerodynamics
structural mechanics
aircraft control
astrodynamics
human factors engineering
propulsion systems
space propulsion
ionized gases
systems engineering
satellite engineering
aircraft systems engineering
bio-inspired structures


Architecture
environmental design
architectural design
glass houses
contemporary architecture
building technology
energy flow in buildings
structural design
historic structures
construction materials
structural systems
natural lighting
Analysis of Beam
Method of Joints
Method of Sections
Mohr's Cirlce
Von-Mise Stress
Theories of Failure


Materials Science
intro to materials science
materials processing
polymer engineering
solid state chemistry
materials in human experience
fracture and fatigue
welding and joining
physical metallurgy
magnetics
photonic materials
electrochemical processing
mechanics of plastics
magnets


Nuclear Engineering
Kalina Cycle
Thermal Power Plant
applied nuclear physics
engineering of nuclear systems
nuclear reactor safety
nuclear fuel
nuclear reactors
medical imaging
plasma physics
superconducting magnets
geiger counters
Automotive Engineering
Diesel Engine
Diesel vs Petrol
Manual Transmission
Differential
Slip Differential
Fuel Cell Technology
Gear Design
gas and diesel engines


Thermo-dynamics
Refrigerator
Heat Transfer
Thermodynamics 1
Thermodynamics 2
Fluid Dynamics 1
Fluid Dynamics 2
Turbulence


Turbines
Gas Turbine
Steam Turbine
Wind Turbine
Francis Turbine
Turbomachinery
Pelton Turbine
Kaplan Turbine
Centrifugal Pump
Centrifugal Pump 2
Steam Turbine


Electric Motors
DC Motor
Brushless DC Motor
Alternator
Single Phase Motor
3 Phase Motor
RMF - 1P Motor
RMF - 3P Motor


Electrical Engineering
electromagnetism 1
solid state circuits
circuits and electronics
electromagnetics
circuits
power electronics
photovoltaics - solar energy
electromagnetics
antennas and signals
electric machines
nanoelectronics
superconductivity


Computer Science
intro to algorithms
artificial intelligence
JAVA programming
Python
programming languages
computer systems 1
database systems
computer graphics
network security
computer systems security
natural language processing
machine learning
intro to C language


Civil Engineering
soil behavior
waste containment
soil mechanics
environmental chemistry
groundwater hydrology
aquatic chemistry
water quality control
atmospheric chemistry
wastewater treatment
environmental microbiology


3D-printed nanomanufacturing

Currently, people design materials based on a material's existing chemistry, structure and its corresponding properties. A new vision for material design instead looks first at the desired properties you are targeting for a product application and then applies proprietary design methods to optimize the structure and its internal geometry. Applications could range from the aerospace industry, which would take advantage of the high strength and low weight of the nanoengineered materials, to fields that would take advantage of the materials' porosity, such as water desalination or gas filtration.

Manufacturing at the nanoscale is known as nanomanufacturing. Nanomanufacturing involves scaled-up, reliable, and cost-effective manufacturing of nanoscale materials, structures, devices, and systems. It also includes research, development, and integration of top-down processes and increasingly complex bottom-up or self-assembly processes.
• Chemical vapor deposition is a process in which chemicals react to produce very pure, high-performance films.

• Molecular beam epitaxy is one method for depositing highly controlled thin films.

• Atomic layer epitaxy is a process for depositing one-atom-thick layers on a surface.

• Dip pen lithography is a process in which the tip of an atomic force microscope is dipped into a chemical fluid and then used to write on a surface, like an old fashioned ink pen onto paper.

• Nanoimprint lithography is a process for creating nanoscale features by "stamping" or "printing" them onto a surface.

• Roll-to-roll processing is a high-volume process to produce nanoscale devices on a roll of ultrathin plastic or metal.

• Self-assembly describes the process in which a group of components come together to form an ordered structure without outside direction.

Whether in construction, aerospace or electronics, picking the right material for the job involves choosing the best fit among a limited number of options, which often leads to compromises between material strength and weight. Rather than creating entirely new materials, Professor Rashid Abu Al-Rub and his team at the Masdar Institute in the United Arab Emirates, focused on changing the internal geometric structure of familiar plastics, metals, ceramics and composites. Tweaking materials from the ground up allowed the scientists to control their mechanical, thermal and electrical properties in unique ways.

Density and strength, for instance, usually go hand in hand. Strong materials like metals and alloys tend to be heavy, while foams and other lightweight composites are normally much weaker. Changing the molecular structure can lead to materials that are both strong and light at the same time by being airy rather than solid, and by deriving their strength from complex shapes. This is the same principle that gives the Eiffel Tower structural strength through the arrangement of its metal struts.

Professor Abu Al-Rub and his engineering design team built a computer model that can generate thousands of geometric arrangements for a given material. Each design gives rise to a different set of thermal, electrical and mechanical properties solely through implementing a different geometry. More importantly, the model can be directed to find the arrangement that maximizes certain properties to fit a desired application.

The structures are very complex, so they couldn't be produced through conventional manufacturing methods. Luckily, however, recent 3D printing advances have made it possible to 3D print these structures even though their features might be only a few nanometers in size. According to their research, the combined ability to design custom properties into a material and then manufacture it through 3D printing could disrupt the future of material design.



Engineering & Computer Jobs

The Fundamentals of Engineering exam should be taken immediately after earning a bachelors degree from an ABET-accredited program. Engineers who pass this exam are called engineers in training (EIT), or engineer interns. After meeting work experience requirements, engineer interns can attempt a second certifying exam, called the Principles and Practice of Engineering Exam. Thereafter, acquisition of a professional engineering license enables management of junior engineers, the ability to sign off on engineering projects, and provide services directly to the public.

Links below list current openings:Starting Salary
(up to)
10 Year Salary
(up to)
Aerospace Engineers$89,260$124,550
Aircraft Mechanics$39,300$71,780
Android Apps$84,350$97,900
Architects$69,760$104,970
Biotechnology$70,900$129,510
Chemists$66,040$106,310
Civil Engineers$72,120$104,420
Electrical Engineers$78,900$115,240
Environmental Engineers$72,590$106,230
Graphic Design$49,300$58,000
Industrial Engineering$70,630$100,980
Maintenance Technician$63,230$73,810
Linux/Perl/C++$79,920$95,350
Mechanical Engineers$63,230$94,690
.NET Developer$88,620$108,000
Network Analysts$65,230$91,550
Robotics $82,160$92,550
Solar Energy$81,050$104,930
Software Development$79,920$95,250
Surveying $23,640$43,140
SWIFT, iOS$85,400$110,720
Technical Writers$60,850$91,720
Urban Planners$58,940$86,880
EMPLOYERS:     Post Jobs     Search Resumes





EMPLOYERS:

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Engineering Jobs
(updated hourly)
Starting
(up to)
Aerospace Engineers$89,260
Aircraft Mechanics$39,300
Android Apps$84,350
Architects$69,760
Biotechnology$70,900
Chemists$66,040
Civil Engineers$72,120
Electrical Engineers$78,900
Environmental Engineers$72,590
Graphic Design$49,300
Industrial Engineering$70,630
Maintenance Technician$63,230
Mechanical Engineers$63,230
.NET Developer$88,620
Network Analysts$65,230
Project Management$68,100
Robotics $82,160
Solar Energy$81,050
Software Development$79,920
Surveying $23,640
SWIFT, iOS$85,400
Technical Writers$60,850
Urban Planners $58,940
 
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This website is not affiliated with any educational institution, and all trademarks are exclusive property of the respective owners. College Inspector is the work of a group of Thai students in Bangkok, using info from the US Department of Education, Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS). If any stats are incorrect, please contact us with the right data.

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